Wednesday, February 6, 2008

Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj




Chatrapati Shivaji - The chastiser of the Mughals



Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजीराजे भोसले) (Born:February 19, 1627, Died: March 4, 1680) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674.


He raised a strong army and navy, constructed and repaired forts, used guerilla warfare tactics, developed a strong intelligence network, gave equal treatment to the people from all religions and castes based on merit, and functioned like a seasoned Statesman and General. He appointed ministers with specific functions such as Internal security, Foreign affairs, Finance, Law and Justice, Religious matters, Defense etc. He introduced systems in revenue collection and warned the officials against harassment of subjects. He thought ahead of times and was a true visionary. In his private life, his moral virtues were exceptionally high. His thoughts and deeds were inspired by the teachings of his mother Jijabai, teacher Dadaji Konddev, great saints like Dnyaneshwar & Tukaram and the valiancy and ideals of the Lords Rama and Krishna



The Marathas - Samurais from Western India
The Marathas are a proud and hardy race who are a sub-set of the wider Hindu Community. They are first mentioned in Indian history as the stout fighters in the army of the Chalukya King Pulikeshin who resisted the Southward march of Emperor Harsha in the 7th century C.E



The Maratha dynasties of the ancient (pre-Muslim) period are the Chalukyas (500 C.E. to 750C.E.), the Rastrakutas (750 C.E. to 978 C.E. and the Yadavas or Jadhavs (1175 C.E. to 1318 C.E.).

The Marathas were the first who crossed Malik Kafur's path, when he invaded the deccan in 1314 C.E. They were then led by the last scion of the Yadava dynasty - Ramdev Rai Yadava who ruled from Devagiri (today's Daulatabad). In their first clash with the Muslims; the Marathas lost to the invaders and accepted the status of being vassals and mercenaries of their Muslim overlords.


The Marathas before Shivaji were Mercenaries and revenue Collectors for the Muslim Rulers
In keeping with the feudal tradition, the Maratha Sardars (Generals), before Shivaji kept shifting their loyalties from one Muslim ruler to another. And there were many Muslim rulers like the Adilshahis at Bijapur, the Nizamshahis at Ahmednagar (Berar), the Qutubshahis at Golkonda (Hyderabad), etc.


Shahji Bhosale, who was Shivaji's father typified this practice of shifting loyalties from one Muslim overlord to another. He was from time-to-time in the service of the Mughals, the Adilshahis and the Nizamshahis. The thought of establishing an independent Maratha-Hindu kingdom, does seem to have crossed his mind, but he never really got about to doing it successfully. The germ of this idea however seems to have got rubbed into Shivaji - his son by Jijabai.


Shivaji Maharaj - the Visionary Saint-Soldier
Shivaji was born in the year 1627 at the Fort of Shivneri in Maharashtra in Western India. Shivaji's mother, Jijabai was a direct descendant of the erstwhile Yadav royal family of Devagiri. She seems to have nursed deep within her mind the idea of recovering independence from Muslim rule which her Yadav forebears had lost in the year 1318. Shivaji grew up with these ideas embedded into him. His childhood stories are those of playing games in which he and his friends attacked and captured forts held by the enemy.
The Oath of Independence - at Raireshwar


When Shivaji was seventeen, he decided to transform what were till then simply games to a reality. He and his friends encouraged by Jijabai and his Guru Dadoji Kondeo; decided to take a formal oath to free the country from the shackles of Muslim tyranny. This was done in the year 1645 in a dark cavern housing a small temple to the Hindu God Shiva (locally called Raireshwar).







Here Shivaji and his select band of teenaged Maratha friends slit their thumbs and poured the blood oozing from it on the Shiva-linga (Phallus representing the Lord Shiva). By this act they declared a blood-feud against Mughal tyranny. This was the beginning of a long and arduous Maratha-Mughal struggle that went on for the next century and a half to culminate in the defeat of the Mughals and their replacement by the Marathas as the dominant power in India


Shivaji's encounter with Afzal Khan

When Shivaji started his military career by capturing the fortress of Torana, it sent shockwaves in the Adilshshi court at Bijapur. Here was a local Hindu chieftain, daring to challenge the might of a Muslim ruler. The retribution was swift and Adil Shah sent in his most fearsome general named Afzal Khan to bring back Shivaji dead or alive to Bijapur. Afzal Khan who was reputed to be more than six feet tall and of a real massive built, set on his mission and in order to lure Shivaji down into the plains, he destroyed the Hindu temples at Tuljapur, Pandharpur and Shikhar Shenganapur.

Afzal Goes Up to Pratapgad


This ploy failed to work and Shivaji stuck to his Hill fastness in the Sahyadris. Shivaji even sent a letter to Afzal Khan praising the legendary strength of Afzal Khan's powerful arms and his reputed fearlessness. Shivaji addressed him as his uncle and said that he was afraid to come down to meet Afzal Khan. Shivaji asked him to come up into the hills to meet him and on condition that Afzal Khan came with not more than few select soldiers. The proud Khan felt that the Dekkhan-Ka-Chuha (Rat of the Deccan as the Muslims scornfully addressed Shivaji) had really chickened out.



Afzal Meets his Nemesis in Shivaji


Khan-Saheb agreed to go up the hills at Pratapgad to meet his nemesis. When the meeting took place, Afzal Khan embraced Shivaji and with his diminutive enemy (Shivaji was less than five feet in height) in his grip, Afzal suddenly pulled out his dagger and tried to stab Shivaji. When Afzal's dagger could not plunge into Shivaji Maharaj due to the protective armour which Shivaji was wearing, Afzal tried to throttle him. But the wily Maratha was more than prepared for this as he had come down not only with full armour that was hidden by his thick satin robes, but he also had with him the 'Wagh Nakh' - a sharp weapon resembling tiger claws that could be hidden in the grip of one's fist. In addition, he had the Bichhwa - curved dagger hidden in the pocket of his waistcoat.

Jiwa Mahalaya

On sensing that the Khan meant to throttle him, Shivaji pierced the tiger claws deep into Khan's belly and pulled out his intestines. After which Shivaji repeatedly stabbed him with the bichhwa. The Khan bellowed "Daga" "Daga" and yelled for Syed Banda, his bodyguard to come to his rescue. When Syed Banda, also a burly Muslim was about to strike Shivaji with his sword, Shivaji's bodyguard Jiva Mahalya struck off Banda's upraised arm in the air itself.

Santaji Kawji

After this commotion, the bleeding Khan tried to make good his escape and rushed into his palanquin. As the palanquin bearers set off with the fleeing Khan, Santaji Kawji, another of Shivaji's select warriors cut-off the feet of the bearers and Khans' palanquin, with its load of Khansaab fell to the ground. Santaji Kawji, then finished off the task of sending Khan to his final resting place. Khan's army which was waiting in the valley was ruthlessly massacred by the Marathas who were hiding behind every crevice and bush in the densely wooded jungles around the Pratapgad fort. At the place where this encounter took place on 10th November 1659 between Shivaji Maharaj and the Khan, there stands today a Kabar (grave) erected by Shivaji for the departed Khan's soul to rest in peace.

Bijapur Stymied

The result of this dramatic encounter was that the Bijapur ruler panicked and after that never posed a serious threat to the growing Maratha power. The next Muslim power which Shivaji turned to was that of the Mughals. Here was the real challenge for Shivaji. The Bijapur rulers were a provincial power, while the Mughals were an power of imperial dimensions whose writ ran almost all over Northern India.

The Siege of Panhalgad

Despite this defeat, Bijapur's Adil Shah made one last attempt to check Shivaji by sending another general named Siddhi Jouhar against him. Siddhi besiged Panhalgad where Shivaji was camping. The seige went on for some months, from summer till the monsoons. But Shivaji Maharaj slipped out of Panhalgad and reached safely at Vishalgad.

The Brave Deed of Baji Prabhu Deshpande

It is during this escape that Baji Prabhu Deshpande held the pursuing enemy troops at a narrow pass called Ghod Khind. Baji Prabhu immortalized himself by laying down his life but ensured that his Master reached safely at Vishalgad. This narrow pass is today known as Pawan Khind i.e. a Holy Pass. Made holy by Baji Prabhu's memorably brave deed.

Encounter with Shaista Khan - Aurangzeb's Uncle

The next Khan to come down 'literally' before Shivaji was Shaista Khan. On hearing Shivaji's depredations, Aurangzeb was furious and wanted to desperately crush this infidel upstart. He sent his uncle maternal Shaista Khan with a large and powerful army to checkmate Shivaji.

But even this time the wily Maratha proved that brain was stronger than the brawn.

Shaista Khan came into Maharashtra and started devstating towns, villages fields, temples, forts and everything that came in his path.

Shaista Establishes his Harem in Shivaji's Devghar (Prayer Room)

To provoke Shivaji, Shaista Khan established his camp in Shivaji's home in Pune called Lal-Mahal. And to top it up, he put up his Harem in Shivaji's Devghar (prayer room).
Shaista is Lucky - He Only Loses His Fingers

Shivaji bided his time for many months and one on fine day (night), he with a select band of Maratha Samurais, sneaked into Pune and into the Lal-Mahal. He tracked down the sleeping Khan to his bed. The Khan sensing that his time was up tried jumping out of the window. At that point Shivaji cut off the Khan's fingers with which he was holding on to the window sill.

On the Khan's wife's pleading before Shivaji to spare her husband's life as she considered Shivaji to be her brother. And so killing her husband would mean making her a widow, Shivaji spared the Khan's life. This was a mistake for which Shivaji was to pay dearly later. Shivaji made good his escape from the Khan's lair, but not before the treacherous Khan ordered his troops to give chase and try to capture the fleeing Shivaji.

Shaista's Retreat from Maharashtra
The Khan however, decided that enough was enough and returned to Delhi - without his fingers. This happened in April 1663

The failure of his uncle peeved Aurang to no end and he now sent another general to subjugate Shivaji. This was Mirza Raja Jai Singh, Aurangzeb's Hindu general who was also the scion of the house of the Suryavanshi Kachhawaha's who we saw earlier had ingratiated themselves to the Mughal rulers by giving away their daughters in marriage to the Mughal Padishah. (The Moghuls incidentally never returned the favour by giving, or even offerring, their daughters to the Rajputs!). This Mirza Raja Jaisingh who came with a powerful force was smarter than Shaista Khan sent earlier by Aurangzeb. Mirzaji laid siege to Purandar alongwith a systematic loot and destruction of rural Maharashtra.

The Brave Deed of Murar Baji
When Raja Jai Singh and his general Diler Khan laid siege to the Fort of Purandar. Murar Baji was the Maratha Fort Commandant at Purandar. To break the morale of the Maratha troops, Diler Khan launched a viscious attack on the fort and laid waste the surrounding countryside. The Mughals succeeded in forcing their way into the outer defenses of Purandar.

But the Marathas were not easily intimidated, they withdrew to the inner fort (bali-killa) and kept on their attack on the besieging Mughals. One day, Murar Baji decided to rain hell on the enemy and the Marathas stormed out of the fort and fell upon the Mughals who were occupying the outer fort. In face of the Maratha attack, the Mughals broke ranks and fled to their main camp in the plains below, where Diler Khan was camping.

Seeing the ferocity of the Maratha attack, Diler Khan, decided to tempt Murar Baji with an offer of making him a general in the Mughal army if he betrayed Shivaji. When news of this offer reached Murar Baji, in the midst of the battle, his rage knew no bounds, and in a rash act he pushed into the ranks of the Mughal troops, hacking right, left and center towards Diler Khan and shouted at him that he would reply Diler's offer by cutting off his head and taking it to Shivaji Maharaj.

Murar Baji had left his own troops behind and was now surrounded by Mughal troops on all sides, but he could only see Diler, whose head he wanted. This act was brave but rash and cost Murar Baji his life. Their leader dead, the Marathas withdrew into the fort. The news of this battle and the passing away of Murar Baji and the long drawn siege along with the destruction of the countryside forced Shivaji to reach out for a compromise with Jai Singh in the interests of the sufferring population of Maharashtra.

The Treaty of Purandar
The treaty of Purandar signed between Mirza Raja Jai Singh and Shivaji Maharaj had among many conditions, one condition that Shivaji accompany Mirzaji to Agra. Shivaji decided to go to Agra in 1666.

Shivaji's Visit to Aurangzeb at Agra

At Agra, when Shivaji presented himself at the Moghul court, Aurangzeb deliberately insulted him by making him stand behind a lesser noble whom Shivaji has once defeated in battle. This was a calculated humiliation that Aurang had arranged for Shivaji. As a result Shivaji left the court in a huff. This gave Aurangzeb an excuse to declare Shivaji of having committed the offence of insulting the Mughal court.

Imprisonment of Shivaji

Aurangzeb detained Shivaji in Mirza Raja Jai Singh's house where Shivaji had put up. Shivaji seems to have read Aurangzeb's mind of having him put to death. Aurag had made plans to shift Shivaji into the proper Mughal dungeons.

Shivaji's Escape from Aurang's Clutches

Shivaji struck upon an idea and said that he wanted to make peace with God by sending fruit and sweetmeats to Brahmins and holy men. To this Aurangzeb consented. One fine day Shivaji and his son Sambhaji hid himself in two of the sizable baskets in which fruits and sweetmeats had been packed everyday and made good their escape from Aurnag's custody. In doing this Shivaji must have had in mind what had happened to his general Netaji Palkar who after being captured by the Mughals had been forced to embrace Islam and change his name to Quli Mohammed Khan. Netaji was forced to serve as a Mughal soldier in Afghanistan, till he too made good his escape and returned to Shivaji to reconvert to Hinduism and join the forces of Swaraja once again. Others were not so lucky, they were made to convert to Islam and some others were simly tortured to death - as was to happen later with Shivaji's son Shambhu Raje or Sambhaji, ater Shivaji's death.

Coronation of Shivaji as Chattrapati

After returning to the deccan, Shivaji again raised an army and recaptured all the forts that he had been made to surrender to the Mughals as per the treaty of Purandar. In this phase we see the exploits of his brave general Tanaji Malusare who perished while recapturing the invincible fort of Kondana from Uday Bhan - the renegade Rajput who was the Mughal commandant of the fort. After all the forts had been recaptured, Shivaji was pursuaded by Gaga Bhatt (a brahmin from Benaras) and his mother the ageing Jijabai to formally crown himself as the king of the Marathas. The coronation took place at Raigad on the 6th of June 1674.


Shivaji Maharaj's Seal. Shivaji Maharaj was the first Hindu King to ascend a throne after a long time. During the Dark Days of Muslim Tyranny, Shivaji Maharaj was one of the very few (along with the Ranas of Mewad), to issue his own coinage. Shivaji's coinage was in Sanskrit. The coins were in two main denominations, the Shivrai made of copper was a lower denomination coin and the Hon was a gold coin of a higher denomination. To erase the memory of Shivaji Maharaj, Aurangzeb issued an order after the passing away of Shivaji Maharaj that all Hons were to be imponded and melted. That Aurang did not succeed in erazing Shivaji Maharaj's illustruous personality from our memory is another matter

A "Nazarana" - The Daughter-in-law of the Muslim Subahdar of Kalyan

During the days after the coronation, many Maratha generals presented Nazaranas (tribute in kind) to the newly anointed King of Maharashtra. It was then a practice of the Muslims to abduct any fair maiden and to force her into the harem as a concubine. (A harem is a term for the living quarters of abducted women, nominally treated as wives.) On one such occasion, following the "illustrious" example set by the Muslim aggressors, a Maratha Sardar also (general) abducted a daughter-in-law of the Muslim Subahadar of Kalyan, near Mumbai (Kalyan was then under Mughal occupation).

This Sardar presented this "Nazarana" to Shivaji Maharaj, expecting to be patted on the back for such a "fair" tribute. Shivaji Maharaj's reaction at this occasion, gives us an insight into the mind of the person who lived 300 years before us. Shivaji not only chided the general, but warned him and all the other Maratha generals that such a heinous offence would henceforth attract a penalty of the offender's hands being chopped off. The dazed general was asked by Shivaji to return with full honours, the daughter-in-law of the Muslim Subahadar of Kalyan.

The Maratha ballads (Povadas) that describe this event say that on hearing Shivaji's dialogue in Marathi the teenaged girl is said to have exclaimed "Ya Allah, yeh aadmi nahin farishta hai. Ees farishtey pe kamyaabi bahal karna." ("O Lord, this is not an ordinary man but an angel. Bestow success on this angel.") The Maratha balladeers, while narrating this event say that "Asseech amuchi aai asatee,sundar roopavati; amhi hee sundar zhalo asato - vadaley Chattrapati" ("If my mother had been as beautiful, I too would have been as beautiful - exclaimed Chattrapati"). These dialogues might as well be a later romanticization of what actually happened. But it proves a point - Shivaji Maharaj had risen above the attitudes of religious bigotry, and beastly behaviour that had come to typify the Indian ruling class under Muslim rule.

Karnataka and Tamil Nadu Campaigns of Shivaji
After this Shivaji launched his campaign in Karnatak, which took him up to Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu. The period from 1674 up his passing away in 1680 was a relatively peaceful period, as the Mughal made no more attempts to molest the Marathas. Only after the passing away of Shivaji Maharaj did Aurang again dared to venture into Maharashtra, and then too he did not entrust the task to any general. He came himself in 1682 and stayed on in the deccan till his death in 1707.

The Marathas After Shivaji Maharaj - Sambhaji
After the passing away of their illustrious leader, the marathas fell into relative disarray. Shivaji's eldest son Sambhaji did not prove adequate to the responsibility of preserving the flame of independence to which his father had given the initial spark. Sambhaji was extremely fearless and brave. Maratha chronicles (Bakhars) refer to him as in fact more assertive and independent than his father. But in addition to all this Sambhaji also had vices like wine and women. In his eventful life, Shivaji Maharaj did not seem to have had enough time to groom his successor. Sambhaji's temper had a short fuse. During Shivaji's life-time itself, he had once quarreled with his father and had gone over to join the Mughals as one of their Mansabdars. Subsequently, he realized his folly and came back to his father and repented. But this act of his deeply hurt his father nad also displayed his chimerical nature for which he was to pay later with a painful death.

Sambhaji's Assassination

Sambhaji did not falter in battling the Mughals, as well as the Portuguese. In those days Aurnagzeb had come over to the Deccan. After subjugating the Bijapur and Golkonda kingdoms, he turned his attention on the Marathas. He carried on a ceaseless campaign against the Marathas. Sambhaji performed many daring acts in this guerrilla campaign especially in the Konkan region. But in spite of his bravery, his short temper and his vices went against him. One night, when he was passing thru Sangmeshwar with a small band of bodygaurds, he was waylaid by the Mughals and was brought in chains before Aurangzeb.

On being presented to Aurabgzeb, Sambhaji was asked to surrender all his forts, accept Islam and enter the service of the Mughal Emperor. To this affront, Sambhaji scronfully replied that he could consider this if Aurangzeb gave him his daughter in marriage and proclaimed him as the successor to the Mughal throne! On hearing this Aurang flew into a rage and decided to torture Sambhaji to death. Sambhaji's eyes were gouged, his tongue was cut off, followed by his arms and legs. Sambhaji died an inhuman death, but till the agonizing end he never recanted his faith.

Rajaram, Tarabai and Shahu
After Sambhaji's assassination, his step-brother Rajaram became the king. He was not especially brave and is said to have been physically weak. During his time Aurangzeb besieged and captured Raigad. Instead of fighting the enemy, Rajaram fled from Raigad when the fort was about to be besieged. Raigad fell into the hands of the Mughals in 1689 when a renegade Maratha called Suryaji Pisal betrayed the defences of the fort to the besieging Mughals. During the capture of Raigad, Sambhaji' wife Yesubai and his son Shahu were taken captive by the Mughals. Rajaram's life as Chattrapati was spent mostly in fleeing from the Mughal armies. Nevertheless during his times, the generals like Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav carried out a whirlwind guerrilla campaign to harras the Mughal army and never let Aurangzeb rest in one place. Thus in spite of his presence in the Deccan for more than 25 years from 1680 to 1707, Aurang could not subsume the flame of independence lit by Shivaji Maharaj

Aurang's Death in 1707
When Aurang died in 1707, his son Azamshah who was with him at his deathbed, proclaimed himself the Mughal Emperor and prepared to battle his elder brother Muaazam, who was then in Kabul. To ensure that the Marathas came over to his side, Azamshah released Shahu who was till then held as a prisoner by the Mughals. Shahu had been a prisoner for 18 years from 1689 up to 1707. When Shahu staked his claim to the throne, Tarabi was ruling. A battle between the two was inevitable. This battle fought at Khed went in favour of Shahu and he became the Chattrapati. He was incidentally the last de facto Chattrapati of the Marathas.



The Spread of the Maratha Empire.
The Marathas rose to the status of Imperial Rulers of India. Their rise from freedom fighters for swarajya to the rulers of Marathi Daulat (Empire) took place from 1720 to 1761 and lasted till 1803 when they were supplanted by the British.

The Peshwas - Baji Rao, Balaji Baji Rao, Madhav Rao

As we saw above, after Shahu, the de facto executive power passed into the hands of the hereditary Prime Ministers the Peshwas. Balaji Viawanath Bhatt was succeeded by his son Baji Rao the first. Baji Rao was a very able and ambitious soldier and he was the one who consolidated Maratha power in North India.

history and the fissiparous tendencies he let loose ultimately let to the downfall of the Maratha empire.

His first mistake was to go back on the agreement between his grandfather Balaji Viswanath Bhatt and Kanhoji Angre according to which the Peshwa was to have no direct control over the Maratha Navy. He attacked the his own navy and weakened one arm of the Maratha might.

During his rule, North India was invaded by Ahmed Shah Abdali first in 1756. Balaji Baji Rao then sent his brother Raghunath Rao along with Malharrao Holkar to defeat Abdali. Raghunath rao not only defeated Abdali but chased him up to the Khyber pass till Attock in Paktoonistan. .

This success of Raghunath Rao aroused the jealousy of Balaji Baji Rao's wife Gopikabai, who started conspiring against Raghunath Rao to undermine his influence. This led to corresponding jealousy from Anandibai who was Ragunath Rao's wife. The unfortunate fallout of this court intrigue ws to end in the disastrous 3rd battle of Panipat in 1761.Let us see the event that led to this catastrophe at Panipat.

The Persian Invasion of 1740 by Nadir Shah

Some 80 years after Shivaji when the Mughal Empire had been weakened by repeated Maratha attacks, the Afghan raider Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invaded North India. As the Mughals were past their prime and were now living at the mercy of the Marathas, they did not dare oppose Ahmed Shah. The task of challenging him was left to the Marathas. The Marathas who then were on their ascendancy in North India had since the first Persian-Afghan invasion by Nadir Shah, the king of Persia in 1740, established themselves as a dominant power in Northern India. The 20 years from 1740 to 1760 saw a see-saw battle between the Afghans and the Marathas for the domination of North India.

With the defeat of Mohammed Shah, the Moghul Emperor in 1740 by Nadir Shah (in whose army Ahmed Shah Abdali was a general), the Mughal power steadily declined and its place was usurped by the Rohillas who were led by an ambitious and ruthless chieftain named Najib Khan. Najib's ambition was to supplant the Moghal Emperor and crown himself as the ruler of India by capturing Delhi.

The Marathas Liberate Punjab

But the growing power of the Marathas in their northward expansion, stood between Najib and his ambition. To overcome the Marathas, in 1755, Najib invited Ahmed Shah Abdali from Afghanistan to help him in defeating the Marathas and crown himself the ruler of India. In this, he was thwarted by the Marathas who decisively defeated the Rohillas and Afghans near Delhi in 1756. The defeat was so decisive that Najib Khan surrendered to the Marathas and became their prisoner. The Maratha forces were led by Shrimant Raghunath Rao and Malhar Rao Holkar.

After defeating the Afghan-Rohilla forces, the Marathas pursued the Afghans into the Punjab and beyond up to the Khyber pass. The last frontier of the Marathas was at Attock in today's NWFP (or Paktoonistan) on the Afghan border. (This campaign of the Marathas led by Shrimant Raghunath Rao is called as Raghu's Bharari - i.e. whirlwind campaign.

Thus after nearly 800 after the last Punjabi King Tirlochan Pal Shahi had been defeated by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1020 C.E. did that part of India come under Indian rule in 1756 due to the liberation of Punjab by the Marathas.
Meanwhile with machinations and trickery, Najib Khan won over Malhar Rao Holkar and secured his release. On his release Najib started to undermine the Marathas once again and treacherously killed Dattaji Shinde (eldest brother of Mahadji Shinde). Najib continued to battle the Shindes in 1757-58 and with his newly found confidence again invited Ahmed Shah Abdali to invade India.

PANIPAT - A Result of Court Intrigues at Pune

The court intrigues at Shaniwarwada in Pune between Gopikabai (Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao's wife) and Anandibai (Raghunath Rao's wife) led to the sidetracking of Raghunath Rao in favour of the Peshwas cousin, Sadashiv Rao Bhau (along with Viswas Rao the Peshwa's son and successor) as the Supreme commander of the Maratha forces that were to give battle to Abdali a second time. It was unfortunate for the Marathas, that due to rivalries, a successful commander like Raghunath Rao was bypassed in favour of another general.

The 3rd Battle of Panipat

When Abdali launched his second invasion in 1759 the Marathas who after their successes in 1756 had been hibernating in Maharashtra and Central India again woke up and in alliance with the Jat King Suraj Mal of Bharatpur formed an alliance. This alliance led by Shrimant Sadshiv Rao Bhau and Shrimant Vishwas Rao (the Peshwa Shrimant Balaji Baji Rao's son) won spectacular victories and captured Delhi and Kunjapura (where the Afghan treasury and armoury was located). Here the alliance developed cracks due to the Maratha insistence on not allowing the Jats to loot Delhi. This ultimately split the alliance and Suraj Mal withdrew from the alliance. The Marathas consequently marched upto Panipat, but instead of continuing their attacks to completely defeat the partly defeated Abdali and Najib Khan, they stayed put at Panipat, blocking the way of the Afghans back to Afghanistan. Seeing their way back to their homeland blocked, the Afghans now became restless. They in turn, decided to block the way of the Marathas back into the Deccan.

Stand-off for one year

This stand-off continued for one whole year from the 14th of January 1760 up to the 14th of January 1761. This led to the fall in the morale of the stranded Marathas and ultimatley led to their defeat at Panipat. The Marathi term "Sankrant Kosalali" meaing "Sankranth has befallen us" comes from this event. During this stand-off the Afghans cut-off all supplies to the huge Maratha army. The Afghans with Najib Khan meanwhile also recaptured Delhi and Kunjpura. On the decisive day of 14th January 1761 (Makar Sankranti), the Marathas decided to break-through the Afghan blockade and re-enter Deccan. The disastrous battle saw about one hundred thousand Maratha troops being slaughtered in a matter of eight hours. But the Afghans too suffered heavy losses and decided enough was enough and went back to Afghanistan never to return to India.

The defeat of the Marathas and the withdrawal of the Afghans created a power vacuum in North India in the period 1761-1790. It was this vacuum that was filled up by the rising British power. But more of this later.

76 comments:

rich said...

!! jai maharashtra !!
namaskar aapan dileli mahiti hi khup bahumol aahe parantu mazya mahiti nusar shivaji maharajyancha jalm 19 feb 1630 la zala hota ya goshti warun khup wad suru aahet he malahi mahit aahet parantu aapanas hi jalm tarikh kothun o kashaya prakare milali he plz kalwawe karan mala hi tarikh kuthun aali yachi mahiti hawi aahe krupa karun jar aapan hi mahiti devu shakat asal tar plz kalwawe...
tasech hya madhe dakhwaleli waghnakhi hi 1800 chya shatkatil aslyache sangitale jate yacha hi jar kahi khulasa asel to jarur kalwawa
ek shivbhakt.
my id = sachin_nir@rediffmail.com
my no = 9270535666.

tushki said...

Khup changli Mahiti Diliy...
JAY MAHARASHTRA!!

the said...

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the said...

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रोहन चौधरी ... said...

Birth date of Shivaji raje is 19 feb 1630 & not 1627 ... your information is outdated my frnd .. pls make correction in ur blogpost ...

Anonymous said...

Assalamualaikum FOLKS
dear im just wondering abt the history you have written here that he killed Afzal, as he was trying to kill Shivaji before him , due to this i m just concerned that its all the fault abt the historian rather to say indian historyian s no tto say regionally but its produced by the Hindu Historian and all this fatc are totally oppsite in the Facts written by the Muslim Histrian , and so do one thing dont read the istory written by the hindu or muslin historian but go for the BRITISH HISTORIAN because they will not write according to their religions as in india its clear every way and what is this Shivaji the Great, only one in these 300 -400yrs and then also died because of the family rivelry of the successor competion and haa why you dont know abt the birth day of the Mr.Great and just think abt it and then start celebrating it and also what if shivaji killed Ghazi Afzal Khan and you cant see ALAMGIR kileed Guru Tegh Bahadura and the son of Shivaji with so many torchures, just think abt and then, also the coconut half filled makes more sound and the theh coconut which is full doesnt mke sound anmd the name as Rat was given by the Brtish Historians not the scornfull muslims. just to say all this dont take in other way these all men have died long back but we should know pure hsitory not the malfucntioned or the redefined history and byeeeeee....

Anonymous said...

i want to know the horse & sword, or talvar name of the grate shivanji maharaj
if any one know then mail me on
ac_p77@yahoo.com

Anonymous said...

I am a Maratha and Shivaji Maharaj is my hero #1. Everytime I take on a tricky endeavor (especially business deals with MNCs) I remember his courage and fearlessly enter the maidan by silently repeating har-har-mahadev (the maratha war cry) and find myself winning against all odds!\

Try it! Wish the whole of India would take inspiration from him and we would be second to no other country!

Ravi said...

!! Jay Maharashtra !!
Thanks for , such a nice information.

Guys something i'd like to tell...
"Raja Shivchatrapati","Shriman Yogi","Raktrekha", the books about The great King Raje Shivaji. One must read this books. Many times you'll read the book , each time you will find new to learn .

Ones approach must be like :
1.Don't get biased by others thoughts/openion , read by your own and think about the great king.
2. Try to understand more about the king.
3. More we try to adopt the characteristics found in Raaje Shivajis nature , more we will excel.

I really proud to be Maratha and Raje ShivChatrapati.

"Jai Jai Jai Bhavani!! Jai Jai Jai Shivaji!!"

sanjukoshy said...

anyone knows any stories which mother of Shivaji ,Jijabai told to him

Anonymous said...

im proud to be maharastrian & proud of great Shatrapatti Shivaji Raje who took birth in maharastra as i and fought for hindueasm.

Vishal raut said...

To,
Raj Karsewak
Mr. Please wash out your brain and read History again. You need to have clean brain wash before writing anything abt Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj.
Dont make your own stories.
Have a better wash...

SACHIN KADAM said...

Ya landyanna sanga konhitari,.adhi roj anghol karayla shikha ani mag Maharajancha nav ghya...anghol karaychi akkal anahi landya tula ani bolto kay re...
Gandila pay lavun palavla na landyanna mhanun gand jalti yanchi...
Shivaji Maharaj islam chya against nhavte mhanun nashib aj maharashtrat rahatay tumhi lande log...

Soft said...

To,
SACHIN KADAM
Dost, hakikat bahut kadwa hota hai, ye sahi baat hai. Yaha 13 comments hai magar tu akele hi marathi me likha hai soch jara q..............
Aur sun tere maharaj ko british log kya bulate the janta hai? nahi na sun pahadi chuha (Mountain Rat) Ek bhi killa fort bata tere maharaja ka jo khule maidan me ho...........

Anonymous said...

said by Nikhil,
dear anonymous(in comment no.6).as u said about afzal khan & chatrapati shivaji maharaja's meeting.
1.the first attack was by afzal khan because he was sent to kill maharaja with large army and he was picked up "panacha wida"to kill maharaja.
2.please read about afzal khan how cruel he was?his mother was not living with him,why?get know about it,ok.u will get ur answer.
3.why british will write good about him b'cause he was their obstacle.
agar kisi ke devotion ke bare me bat karni hai to, apni maa se puch lena,ok.
is bar samaza raha hu agli bar chadhunga tuzpe,by (kutte ki aulad)

Anonymous said...

overall i have always wondered if guerrila warfare is cowardice or bravery. if one hides after attaking what is it. definately not bravery.

Haylee Jones said...

Well, that could be right. If one has to understand Shivaji and the need for guerrila tactics...you have to go through Indian history from 1000AD. Indians were never a attacking breed. They were always attacked/rules by foreign powers till 1947.

Shivaji was an exceptional personality India could produce; one who first introduced an idea of Swarajya (Self Government). Nobody knew what was self government till then! All they knew was working for somebody.. This is the same thing what Indians lacked until recently. Entrepreneurship... (Now its a different stories altogether with so many Indian M.N.C.). Shivaji first introduced an idea of Swarajya, and that is his contribution to India.

He didnt had big army like Mughals, Nijams, Kutubs, Adils. All he had was the mountain terrain and an army of 15 to start with. He could expand his army to mere 25-30000. That is all. His priority was to make his land (Maharashtra) independent. For him guerrila tactics were a necessity and not an option as he was fighting against armies which were some hundred thousands in number.

When Peshwas dominated the central and the northen India, they did not had to assort to guerrila warfare as they had the army. They had the money to pay the salaries to this strong army. Shivaji has started from zero. So I wouldnt agree that he was coward. It is always a challenge to start from zero.

Marathas were the only Indian empire who had seen the dreams of independence from external rulers. It is impossible to think of India without this contribution from great king Shivaji.

Anonymous said...

about comment no 6 i can say "musalmanoki patlune gili pili ho jati thi jab harhar mahadev ka nara sunte the."
shiva aaya is khoff se kaiyone sadme me jjan gavayi.
ye iitihas hai kabhi bhi padh lena.
wo akela shabhu tha jo shivba raje ke baad 9 saal tak ladta hi raha .
aur dost auranjeb marabhi na to vo maratha veer rani tarabai ki khoff se mara vahi jo rajaji ki bahu thi
boss punga mat lo aise phategi na shine wala bhi koi na mile

thank for writter to bring a proud histry of our god father.

jai bhavvani

jai jai shivaji ss

हर्षद माने said...

Dear All,

Its a nice to read about Chatrapati always.

He was a man wid extra ordinary vision with buch of great qualities, ability to plan to perfection and to execute.

His life is no more dan a miracle and always adorable and something to learn from.

We however should understand that he was a national hero and not just hero of marathas or Maharastriyans. He had vision to free all India from the worst slavery of mughals.What he did is the idol for entire nation.
He fought wid muslims, but because the avadors were mughals or Badhsahs were muslim. He never had bigut view of Hundu V/s Muslim. The weod Hindavi means dat of Hindustan or India and not just Hindu religion. His Hindavi word includes all people living in India peacefully.Hence I urge all my muslim friends never keep any bad feeling about his history. He is god for all us Indians..his work should be seen beyond such limited views.
I really liked the explanation about his need to resort to Gurilla Tactic or Ganimi Kawa.This tactic has always been part of Maratha warfare and there is nothing cowardly in that. That first was need of time and secondly,it emphasises that we should use our strenghths first. Sahyadri mountain range and swiftness of people living in Maval region( around sahyadri) was the strenght of Maratha army of his time. He perfectly utilises it to its best. There is nothing bad in it.

I was very sad listneing one comment where someone used word tumhare Maharaj...he was our maharaj...everyone in dis nation should love him....and he says..British were calling him pahad ka chuha...they were call him...because first they were his enemies...and secondly we only disrespect our enemy when from mind we knows that he is greater than us...so we should not use the comment of Britishers to show Shivaji was not great..
I urge all my friends who love SHivaji Maharaj, we have utmost respect about him....
now we should spread his greatness to all non maharastrians or to all who either dont know about him or even those who hate him...understand all hatread arises out of ignorance...
He is our idol...now we should try our best to make him nations idol...

hindu blog said...

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Anonymous said...

DOST
sambhaji maharaj pan khup gr88 hote
aadhi 'CHAWA' he pustak wacha

are murkha neet lihi
aapan kai lihitoy yacha vichar kar

Anonymous said...

Actually u r written wrong about shivaji maharaj guru dadoji konddev was not the real guru of shivaji maharaj u can read more&real histry books of shivaji maharaj.

jayraj khochare said...

you stupid writer, shivaji maharajache guru dadu kondev nahi,

surya santh tukaram maharaj he guru ahet.

jayraj khochare said...

pls, shivaji maharaja chya babatit konihi wrong lihu naye, please.

manali said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
manali said...

idiot writer
jar kontyhi topic baddal aaplyala purna mahiti nasel tar tya baddal bolu naye aani lihun publish karnyacha murkhapana tar kadhich karu naye... karan aasha goshin mule marathi manasache pitta khavalte n mhanun tula varche sagle cmnt milalet tyamule plzzzz its my humble request to u dont write any wrong thing's abt "Chatrapati shivaji maharaj"

n jyancha mahanta aakha jagbhar pasarliye tyancha baddal apashabda bolayla tula laj vatayla pahije... tyaveli tyanni maharashtrala britishan pasun aazad kele mhanun shantapane maharashtat jagu shakatoyes

n don't u dare to write any wrong thing abt "Chatrapati shivaji maharaj" ever.... keep dat in ur mind

sneha said...

dear frnds shivaji maharajana ladhaicha shikshan dadoji konddevankadun milala, tyana sant tukaramani updesh kela parantu tyanche adhyatmik guru samartha ramdas swami hote....

sushil mane said...

i want to know your name writter. CHHATRAPATIvar liahayla tu ajun KHUP KHUP LAHAN aahes BETA. Tya britishyancha nako sangu SHIVPRABHUNI tyana kon chuha aani kon SHER he changla dakhvun dilay.

prashant said...

khup khup abhari aher tumche. ki tumhi amala hi mahiti dilya baddal.

vijay said...

Khup changli Mahiti Diliy...
JAY MAHARASHTRA!!

vijay ..........

ganesh wagh said...

tu mahiti khup changali dili, pan tu thoda abhyas kami kela aahe. tula hya vishayat fakt 100 marks paiki 15 mark deto.... improvement kar... pudhachya veli changal preperation karun ye... changale marks deil... JAY MAHARASHTRA

Anonymous said...

Dear Haylee Jones,
if you really want to read Indian history start from 1000 B.C. and idea of self governed India has existed from the times of Chandragupta I. The invaders of those times were the greeks and huns.

Anonymous said...

bal thakrey is reincarnation of shivaji

jai maharastra

Anonymous said...

tumne thik kaha shivaji bal thakrey ki tarah marathi tha hindustani nahin.

Anonymous said...

fighting the firangi is no big deal for those who fight the biharis with great enthusiasm

CHUDASAMA- RAJPUT said...

I Salute the REAL HERO SHIVAJI MAHARAJ !!! World will always remember your Courage & Confidence JAI BHAVANI !!

Anonymous said...

hya landyachi gand marali pahije. ani jikdun ale tikade haklun dile pahije. t

Swarna Bharathi 2020 said...

Namaste Vandemaatharam,Bharath mathaki jai,My Name is Dr.Naageshwer Galipally Social Activist with Patriotic fervour,founder of GREAT INDIA 2020 Movement for Leadership Development of Youth,iam really inpired by the history of Chatrapathi Shivaji Leadership,and this monument should carry forward to the future generations where there the true leadership emerged by SwarnaBharathi 2020 .Igniting Minds-Infusing Values Divinity Through Humanity Dignity through Integrity

gauri said...

sah ji raje bhosle,jija mata aur shiva ji ne apni asmita aur matra bhumi ke liye kai balidan diye unko koti koti pranam.

Anonymous said...

"Jai Hind, Jai Maharashtra".

Anonymous said...

shivaji suffered heart attack /died due to fear of AURANGZEB

lalit said...

Shivaji Raje is true Indian and true hindu and honours other religion also also, After Chandragupta Vikramaditya he was the only true Indian who thinks about Akhand Bharat.
My salute to Maata Jijabai who taught him everything, like Chanakya taught Chandragupta.

My salute to Chhatrapati Shivaji,

We are desperately need of Shivaji Raje like personality in the present Indian scenario.

Lalit Kumar

Anonymous said...

shivaji raje fucked all muslim madachod's from india and now am on the same way of raje shiv chatrapati
dear all say jai bhavani jai shivaji

Anonymous said...

dear all

plz read it,

my name is sachin.n
this msg is for all boys and specialy to hindu girls.
dhokebaz muslim's r now replaning of love jehad and they r planing to spoil hindu girls so its my humble request to you all plz dont keep any relation ship with those idiots plz be safe..
jai bhavani jai shivaji

Anonymous said...

shivaji was a great leader.There was no leader except shivaji who had done such a nice work in his childhood

niks said...

shivaji had taught the lesson of brotherhood

sdm11 said...

Dear all; kindly follow the comments by Mr.Harshad Mane ... great explanation of Shivaji Maharaj..

shweta said...

sacchi kahu to bht nafarat karti hu me muslims ko mujhe to unke pakistan me ghus kar unhe marana he i hate all muslims nd i really luv shivaji raje
mala garva ahe ki me marathi ahe

Anonymous said...

Shivaji was GREAT
BUT this GHATI people are fucking asshole. They never understood Raje...they are against minority always...ghatti lavde... Jay Shivaji....

Anonymous said...

he is the hero of YADAVA's

Anonymous said...

Jai Chatrapati Shivaji..

Get inspired by reading this.. I wish all to get inspired by shivaji maharaj biography..
Jai Hind.. Inquilab Zindabad

Anonymous said...

JAI SADHGURU,I WANTED TO KNOW THAT HOW SAMARTH RAMDAS TEACHINGS HELPED SHIVAJI MAHARAJ IN HIS LIFE WITH e.g
thank you.

Anonymous said...

Mala he vachatana kahi tari kami vatala karan chatrapati shivaji maharajan baddal jevadha eikav, bolav ani tyanchysathi kahi karav he kamich ahe. Ya madhe lihilya pramane maharaj muslim chya virodhat kadhich navhate. Karan tyanchya maulyan madhe sarva jati dharmache log hote he history madhe lihile ahe. Ho ankhin ek muslim sathi: "nashib tumche tumhala ya maharajyanchya pavan rajyat tumhala rahu detoy." pls ajun hi apnas ek vinanti ahe mazya RAJAn baddal boltana vichar karun bola nahitar: "tumhala ya rajjyatunch navhe tar ya jagachy baher kadhayala sudha kami karnar nahit he maharajanche maule ok" jay maharastra : jay Bhavani :
jay Shivaji :

Anonymous said...

Ye landya, cut lavadya. Tya afjal khanala marnare amche raje tehi samorun ektyane marle ani tya cut lavada aurangjeb la bhitil hoy, . Aadhi eitihas vach mag bol ani lihi. Amche maharaj gele hote agra la ekte tya aurangjeb kade, to navhata ala maharajankade tyala gandit dum lagtoy ani to navata tya landyankade. Samjala ka

Anonymous said...

Was Shivaji Maharaj incarnation of Shankar Bhagwan?

Anonymous said...

are bandyano ardha katlela lavadyano, maayy bahinina vikaychi saway tumachi hoti amachi nahi salyano tumacha aurngzeb zopat nhavata ratra ratra amchya shambu raja mule salyano amchya rajana pahadi chuha mhantat adhi swatachi phatleli shiva mag bola salya bandya...
"JAI MAHARASHTRA,JAI BHAVANI JAI SHIVAJI"

gs said...

mitranno krupaya shivaji maharajanchya blog varti shivya naka deu re rajanni kadhich kontya jati pati manlya nahit , tyanni nehmi sarvanna saman manla ....
jay shivaji .....jay sambhaji.
gokul salunke

gs said...

Muslimanna hi shivaji maharajanni aurangzebapasun sourakshan dile hote ...karan aurangzeb ha turki vanshacha hota he dhyanaat ghya mhanun tyane adilshahi, kutubshahi aani sultanshahi ya shiya muslim sultanat viruddh ladhaya kelya ....tyane sunni muslim sodun saglya jati , dharma var jiziya kar lavla ....aani tevha fakt shivrayancha hindvi swarajya sodla tar baki sarv bhartaat ha kar jantela dyawa lagat ase.....

ABHIJEET RANAWADE said...

IMPORTANT TIP FOR THE READERS:THIS IS FALSE HISTORY OF SAMBHAJI MAHARAJ

But in addition to all this Sambhaji also had vices like wine and women.

This is absolutly false statment. friends for the real history of sambhaji maharaj please refer pro.nitin bangude patils speeches or read khara sambhaji book written by namdev rao jadhav
350 years ugdya dolyana amcha rajachi badnami kele aata ti aamhi khaapun ghenar nai .aare 40 divas befam aatyachar soslet aurangazebachya darbarat .aare adhi dole kadhli mag gib halu halu angawarche mas kapat rahele pan 1 lakshat thewa 24 tasatle 20 tas ghodyawar hote awghe 9 year .jam nar nai vyashni lokala hi.




TO KNOW HOW GREAT WAS SAMBHAJI PLEASE REFER TO NITIN BANGUDE PATILS SPEECHES ON YOUTUBE OR BUY THE BOOK KHARA SMBHAJI THIS BOOK COSTS JUST 200 RS. BUT I GUARENTEE IT GIVES U ALL THE IDEA OF HOW SAMBHAJI WAS THIS WEBSITE HAS TOTALLY GIVEN THE FALSE HISTROY OF SAMBHAJI MAHARAJ. THEY BOTH HAS PROVE Y DIS IS WRONG. SAMBHAJI WAS NOT WITH THE MUGALS IS WAS AN IDEA OF SHIVAJI MAHARAJ

Anonymous said...

नमस्कार !!
मला comment no. 6 ला सांगावेसे वाटते कि इतिहासाचे पुनर्लेखन व्हायला हवे पण ते नि:पक्षपाती पाने व्हायला हवे.
कारण सध्याचा जो इतिहास भारतातल्या पुस्तकांमध्ये आहे तो फक्त मुस्लीम बखरकारांच्या बखरीवरून घेण्यात आला आहे. जो सरळ सरळ पक्षपाती आहे.
कारण हिंदू राजे हे कधीही कोणाच्या वाटेला जात नसत.
मुघल हे बाहेर देशातून भारतात आले आणि त्यांनी भारतातल्या प्रत्येक राज्यावर आक्रमण करून ती बळकावली. आणि त्याचबरोबर त्या त्या राजांचे महाल प्रसाद आदी जप्त करून त्यावर आपले कुराणाचे छिक्के मारायला सुरु केले आणि म्हटले हा राजवाडा आम्ही बांधला. हि वस्तुस्थिती आहे. हिंदूंच्या मंदिरातील मूर्तीचे भंजन करून त्या ठिकाणी मशिदी सुरु केल्या. आजही मशिदीच्या ठिकाणी उत्खनन केले तर हिंदू मूर्तींचे अवशेष सापडतील.
आणि हे मुघल फक्त आक्रमण करून गप्प बसत नसत. तर ते त्याठिकाणी असलेले लिखित साहित्य देखील नष्ट करीत असत.
म्हणजे ते ठिकाण आपल्या नवे करून घेण्याची हि त्यांची पद्धत.
छत्रपती शिवाजी महाराजांनी कधीही अत्याचार केल्याचे मुघलांच्या बखरीत देखील सापडणार नाही.
मुघालांप्रमाणे इंग्रज देखील शिवाजी महाराजांना घाबरून असत.
छत्रपती संभाजी महाराजांबद्दल देखील बोलावयाचे झाल्यास औरंगजेबाने खूप हाल केले हे फक्त तुम्ही सांगितले पण शेवटी हिंदू म्हणून त्यांनी प्राण सोडला आणि शेवट पर्यंत त्यांनी औरंगजेबासमोर ते झुकले नाही.मरेपर्यंत ते हिंदू म्हणून जगले अशा विरस कोटी कोटी प्रणाम.!!!!
माझी सर्वांना एक विनंती आहे कि शिवाजी महाराजांच्या नावाजवळ कृपया शिव्यांचा वापर करू नका भले त्या कोणासाठीही का असेनात.
जय भवानी !!!! जय शिवाजी !!!!

Anonymous said...

सर्व खरा इतिहास समजून घ्यायचा असेल तर पु.ना.ओक यांचे भारतीय इतिहास संशोधनातील घोडचुका. हा ग्रंथ अवश्य वाचा.

Anonymous said...

http://www.hindujagruti.org/news/4404.html

Rohan Nimbalkar said...

This is great imfo..
I just created a page of Chatrapati shivajiraje on FACEBOOK.You can like this page.
Ap Raje kapage LIKE kar sakte hai FACEBOOK pe..
@+[405486172828116]---This is the page code for page www.facebook.com/godshivajiraje
@[405486172828116]

Anonymous said...

http://www.shivchhatrapati.com/

नमस्कार मित्रहो,

साधारण अडीच वर्षांपूर्वी शिवरायांची माहिती सर्वांना सुलभ रित्या कळावी, त्यांची कीर्ती विविध भाषांतून जगापर्यंत पोहोचावी ह्या उद्देशाने मी हे संकेतस्थळ सुरु केले होते.
मी इतिहासाचा अभ्यासक नाही. तरीही महाराष्ट्रातील अभ्यासू मित्रांच्या, जेष्ठांच्या मदतीने अनेक किल्ले, महाराजांचे चरित्र, त्यांचे सहकारी, विवध लोकांनी काढलेली छायाचित्रे अशा गोष्टी जमवून ह्या संकेतस्थळावर उपलब्ध करून देण्याचा मी प्रयत्न केला.

आपल्यातील अनेक मित्रांनी मला फोन करून, इमेल पाठवून, किंवा नोंदणी करून ह्या संकेतस्थळावर प्रेम केलेत आणि माझ्या कामाला दाद दिलीत, माझा उत्साह वाढवलात.
अगदी तंजावर, नागपूर, उत्तर प्रदेश अशा अनेक ठिकाणाहून लोकांनी मला संपर्क करून माझ्या पाठीवर कौतुकाची थाप दिली.
अनेकांनी हे संकेतस्थळ अधिकाधिक चांगले व्हावे ह्या उद्देशाने लेख, कात्रणे, छायाचित्रे असे सर्व देऊन हे संकेतस्थळ श्रीमंत केले. अनेकांनी सूचनाहि केल्या.
आजवर माझ्या परीने मी तुमचे साहित्य संकेतस्थळावर पोहोचवण्याचे काम करत होतो.

पण, वारंवार येणारे धमक्यांचे फोन, हा उल्लेख काढा नाहीतर धिंगाणा करू, घरात घुसून मारू, साईट बंद करा, हे काढलं नाही तर वाईट परिणाम होतील ईत्यादि गोष्टी आता सहन करण्यापलीकडे गेल्या आहेत. एखादी छान संध्याकाळ, तुम्ही अनुभवत असता आणि मधेच हे असे 'शिवप्रेमींचे' दूरध्वनी येतात. कायदेशीर कारवीच्या धमक्या मिळतात.

ह्या सर्वांना कंटाळून हे संकेतस्थळ मी बंद करत आहे.


तुम्ही आजवर जो पाठींबा दिलात त्याबद्दल अनेक धन्यवाद. शेवटी हताशपणे इतकेच म्हणावेसे वाटते,
महाराज तुम्ही मराठी माती एक केलीत पण आता ते होणे नाही, "कधी न व्हावे एकरूप हा शाप मराठी रक्ताला" हेच खरे.

आपला नम्र,
कौस्तुभ खरे
email : kaustubhkhare@gmail.com

Shivcharitra said...

Great information about Shivaji Maharaj. I like the way you manage your whole blog. Keep writing and thanks for sharing valuable information on Raje!!. Jai Bhavani! Jai Shivaji!

Harshad Panchal said...

GARV AHE ME MARTHI ASLYACHA
"HAR HAR MAHADEV."

Anonymous said...

Dear friend,u hav only half info based on that u r trying to debating on gr8 maharaj"s charitrya.
He was not gr8 heros for hindus but for all religions.He builted mosques,temples.

Anonymous said...

Hats off to Sambhaji. Better to die then leave your Hindu religion.

Anonymous said...

http://www.faithfreedom.org/op-ed/distortion-of-indian-history-for-muslim-appeasement-part-3a/

Vinay said...

Nice post to get acquainted with some of major events from the life of Shivaji Maharaj but if any one is interested in real facts and actual dates, etc. there are many other more reliable sources to get this information, any blog post is not the real place to study the history. Normally the blog post can only give you the glimpse or mention some highlights.

http://selfrealization-vinay.blogspot.com/2013/02/chhatrapati-shivaji-maharaj-self-made.html

Rajesh said...

For another good brief article about the great Hindu warrior, please check this out: http://hinduperspective.com/2013/02/10/remembering-shivaji-our-great-hero-saviour/

Pratik Nagolkar said...

sorry friend correcting you but its not sayyed banda its Bada sayyed

bloggermahiboss said...

Shivaji Maharaj was great man. He is an example of bravery for us. He was real hero of India we never forget The great Mahatta King Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Your Article is very nice with complete guide Thanks please keep share useful knowledge with us..Thanks Regarding
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NANDKISHOR WAGH said...

brillant piece of information, I had come to know about your web-page from my friend hardkik, chennai,i have read atleast 9 posts of yours by now, and let me tell you, your webpage gives the best and the most interesting information. This is just the kind of information that i had been looking for, i'm already your rss reader now and i would regularly watch out for the new posts, once again hats off to you! Thanx a million once again, Regards, SAI Baba SMS in Hindi

Anonymous said...

too much of information they should straight away tell the life story of shivaji.

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